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INCO Terms - Purpose
Contract of Carriage
Incoterms – Contract of Carriage
Incoterms – 13 Terms
4 General Groups of Terms
Incoterms – EXW Ex Works
Incoterms – FCA Free Carrier
Incoterms – FAS Free Alongside Ship
Incoterms – FOB Free On Board
Incoterms – CFR Cost and Freight
Incoterms – CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight
Incoterms – CPT Carriage Paid To
Incoterms – CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To
Incoterms – DAF Delivered At Frontier
Incoterms – DES Delivered Ex Ship
Incoterms – DEQ Delivered Ex Quay
Incoterms – DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid
Incoterms – DDP Delivered Duty Paid
Incoterms vs. Mode of Transport
   
   

INCO Terms - Purpose

 

Are also referred to as Terms of Sale and are standardized trade definitions.
Most commonly used in international contracts, thus reflected on the sales invoice.
Ensure buyers and sellers understand each other's expectations and responsibilities.
Were created by the ICC (International Chamber of Commerce, and are protected by ICC copyright.
Are reviewed every 10 years and regularly updated to keep pace with the ever-changing world of international trade.
Latest edition is the Incoterms 2000.

   
   

Contract of Carriage

 

The Incoterm utilized in a transaction will dictate which party is responsible for each transportation segment and it's corresponding contract of carriage. The Incoterm that is utilized can affect the title passage in foreign trade.

As a general rule, Pre-Carriage, Main-Carriage and On-Carriage should be utilized in connection with the Incoterms.

 

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Incoterms – Contract of Carriage

 

Pre-Carriage:  the transportation segment from the seller's location to the point where the cargo would leave from the seller's side.  Example, to arrange for pre-carriage, you would contract with an inland carrier to make delivery to a port or airport.

Main-Carriage: the transportation segment from the seller's side to the buyer's side. Example, to arrange for main-carriage, you would contract for ocean or air carriage.

On-Carriage: the transportation segment from the point of arrival (on the buyer's side), to the designated ultimate receiver.  Example, to arrange for on-carriage, you would contract with an inland carrier to make delivery from the port/airport of arrival to the ultimate receiver.

   
   

Incoterms – 13 Terms

 

EXW Ė Ex Works (named place)
FCA – Free Carrier (named place)
FAS – Free Alongside Ship (named place)
FOB – Free On Board (named port of shipment)
CFR – Cost and Freight (named port of destination)
CIF – Cost, Insurance and Freight (named port of destination)
CPT – Carriage Paid To (named place of destination)
CIP – Carriage and Insurance Paid To (named place of destination)
DAF – Delivered at Frontier (named place)
DES – Delivered Ex Ship (named port of destination)
DEQ – Delivered Ex Quay (named port of destination)
DDU – Delivered Duty Unpaid (named place of destination)
DDP – Delivered Duty Paid (named place of destination)

 

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4 General Groups of Terms

 

“E” term: seller's obligation (& control of shipment) is at its minimum
“F” terms: require the seller to deliver the goods for carriage as instructed by the buyer
“C” terms: require the seller to contract carriage on usual terms at his own expense
“D” terms: seller's obligation & control at its maximum

 

 

 

 

Incoterms – EXW Ex Works

 

The seller's obligation is fulfilled when the buyer has been notified, and the goods (suitably packed for export) are available to the buyer, at the named place within the time specified.

The buyer is responsible for all costs and risks, including the loading of the goods from the named/specified point.

The buyer is responsible to arrange the entire contract of carriage of the goods (pre-carriage, main-carriage, on-carriage).

The buyer is responsible for the export clearance of the goods. This term should not be used when the buyer cannot carrier out the export formalities directly or indirectly.

The buyer is responsible for the import clearance of the goods.

 

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Incoterms – FCA Free Carrier

 

Seller's obligation ends when they delivers the goods, cleared for export, to the carrier (any mode of transport) nominated by the buyer at the named place.

The buyer must contract at his own expense the carriage of the goods from the named place.

However, if it is requested by the buyer or if it is commercial practice and they buyer does not give instructions to the contrary in due time, the seller may contract for carriage at the buyer's risk and expense.

Buyer must clear the goods for import.

 

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Incoterms – FAS Free Alongside Ship

 

Seller's obligation and risk to deliver the goods alongside the vessel at the named port of shipment.

Seller must clear the goods for export.

Term used for sea or inland waterway transport only.

Buyer is responsible for all costs and risks to transport the goods to the destination once cargo is delivered alongside the vessel.

Buyer bears all additional costs as a result of vessel delay or refusal of goods for loading.

Buyer must clear the goods for import at final destination.

 

 

 

 

Incoterms – FOB Free On Board

 

The seller's obligation is fulfilled when the buyer has been notified and the goods have passed over the ship's rail on board the vessel, at the named port. (technically, the seller would be responsible for U.S. Terminal Handling when using this term, so if the seller does not intend to deliver the goods across the ship's rail, the FCA term should be used)

The buyer is responsible for all costs and risks associated with the goods after they have passed over the ship's rail and loaded on board the ship, at the named port.

The buyer is responsible to arrange for the carriage of the goods from the named port of shipment (the main-carriage and on-carriage).

The seller is required to arrange for the export clearance of the goods.

The buyer is responsible to arrange for the import clearance of the goods.

 

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Incoterms – CFR Cost and Freight

 

The seller's obligation is fulfilled when the goods are delivered to a carrier, pass the ship's rail, and the contract of carriage is arranged, freight prepaid, to the named port.

The buyer is responsible for all risks associated with the goods after they have passed the ship's rail to be loaded on board the vessel, as well as the costs and risks related to the goods (receipt of the goods from the carrier) in the importing country.

The seller is responsible to arrange for the pre-carriage and main-carriage of the goods.

The seller is responsible for the export clearance of the goods.

The buyer is responsible for the import clearance of the goods.

 

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Incoterms – CIF Cost, Insurance and Freight

 

The seller's responsibility is fulfilled when the goods are delivered to a carrier, pass the ship's rail, the contract of carriage is arranged, freight prepaid, to the named port, and insurance is obtained on the cargo.

The buyer is responsible for all risks associated with the goods after they have passed the ship's rail to be loaded on board the vessel, as well as the costs and risks related to the goods (receipt of the goods from the carrier) in the importing country.

The seller is responsible to arrange for the pre-carriage and main-carriage of the goods.

The seller is responsible for the export clearance of the goods.

The buyer is responsible for the import clearance of the goods.

 

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Incoterms – CPT Carriage Paid To

 

The seller's responsibility is fulfilled when the goods are delivered to a carrier, pass the ship's rail, the contract of carriage is arranged, freight prepaid, to the named place of destination.

The buyer is responsible for all risks associated with the goods after they have been delivered to the named place of destination, as well as the costs and risks related to the goods (receipt of the goods from the carrier) in the importing country, including insurance.

The seller is responsible to arrange for the pre-carriage and main-carriage of the goods.

The seller is responsible for the export clearance of the goods.

The buyer is responsible for the import clearance of the goods.

 

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Incoterms – CIP Carriage and Insurance Paid To

 

The seller's obligation is fulfilled when the goods are delivered to a carrier, and the contract of carriage is arranged, freight prepaid – the named place of destination, and insurance is obtained on the cargo.

The buyer is responsible for all costs and risks associated with the goods after receipt by the carrier – prior to loading on board the vessel or aircraft, as well as the costs and risks related to the goods (receipt of the goods from the carrier) upon arrival in the importing country.

The seller is responsible to arrange for the pre-carriage and main carriage of the goods.

The seller is responsible for the export clearance of the goods.

The buyer is responsible for the import clearance of the goods.

 

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Incoterms – DAF Delivered At Frontier

 

The seller's obligation ends when they have delivered the goods to the disposal of the buyer on the arriving means of transport not unloaded, cleared for export, but not cleared for import and the named point and place at the frontier but before the customs border of the adjoining country.

The buyer is responsible for customs clearance, duties, taxes, and delivery to final destination at the country of import.

When delivery is to take place in the port of destination, on board a vessel, or on the quay (wharf), the DES or DEQ terms should be used.

 

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Incoterms – DES Delivered Ex Ship

 

The seller's obligation ends when they have delivered the goods to the disposal of the buyer on board the ship, cleared for export, but not cleared for import but delivered the named port of destination before discharging.

The buyer is responsible for customs clearance at the country of import and all charges for discharging off the ship (Destination Unloading, Terminal Handling and/or Container Service Charges-CSC)

If the seller is also to be responsible for discharging the goods off the ship, then the DEQ term should be used.

 

 

 

 

Incoterms – DEQ Delivered Ex Quay

 

The seller's obligation ends when they have delivered the goods to the disposal of the buyer on board the ship, cleared for export, but not cleared for import but delivered the named port of destination after discharging goods off the vessel at the quay (wharf).

The buyer is responsible to clear the goods for import and pay for all formalities, duties, taxes, and other charges upon import.

If the seller is also to be responsible for delivering the goods past the quay to another place (warehouse, terminal, etc.) in our outside the port, the DDU or DDP terms should be used.

 

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Incoterms – DDU Delivered Duty Unpaid

 

The seller's obligation is fulfilled when the goods have been made available to the buyer at the named place of destination – uncleared for importation.

The buyer is responsible for all costs and risks associated with the goods upon importation at the named place of destination.

The seller is required to arrange for the entire contract of carriage (pre-carriage, main-carriage, on-carriage) to the named place of destination.

The seller is required to arrange for the export clearance of the goods.

The buyer is responsible for the import clearance of the goods, including the payment of any applicable duties, taxes and fees.

 

 

 

 

Incoterms – DDP Delivered Duty Paid

 

The seller's obligation is fulfilled when the goods have been made available to the buyer at the named place of destination – cleared for importation.

The buyer is responsible to take delivery of the goods from the named place of destination.

The seller is required to arrange for the entire contract of carriage (pre-carriage, main-carriage, on-carriage) to the named place of destination.

The seller is required to arrange for the export clearance of the goods.

The seller is required to arrange for the import clearance of the goods, including the payment of any applicable duties, taxes and fees.

 

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Incoterms vs. Mode of Transport

 

Any Mode: EXW, FCA, CPT, CIP, DAF, DDU, DDP

Maritime and inland waterways only: FAS, FOB, CFR, CIF, DES, DEQ

Shapiro Mission Statement
It is the mission of Samuel Shapiro & Company, Inc. to achieve, manage and deliver the highest quality of personalized customer service in all facets of international/domestic transportation and logistics. We will utilize the knowledge of our skilled employees, our three generations of experience, our expertise in compliance, and our cutting-edge technological tools, individually tailored to our client's needs, to achieve this goal.

We will maintain the ethical and professional standards established by Samuel Shapiro in 1915, and strive to be a model corporate citizen. We will continue to foster a culture of excellence among our employees, always conscious of our responsibilities to our clients, our Company philosophy, and the communities in which we live.

   
 

Actual loading quantities subject to sample test. Further information on request.

 
 
 
 
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